Charles Hutton was a renowned local mathematician in the 18th Century. He carried out a detailed survey of the town of Newcastle. The full map is available in Maps of Newcastle published by Frank Graham. In my opinion, this is the earliest map which approaches the accuracy we would expect today. Taken from a survey completed in 1770, this map was published a decade into the reign of George IIIbut before the American War of Independence (American Revolutionary War). Presumeably, it was some time in preparation and might well be a fair representation of the town in 1750. It corresponds fairly well to the map of Speed in 1723, although that is far more 'old-fashioned' in character.
The entire town was about half the size of the current city centre and mostly bounded by the mediaeval walls. Before the engraving of the map was completed a flood in 1771 carried away much of the Bridge linking Newcastle and Gateshead.
The Map indicates extensive areas inside and outside the walls which are given over to cultivation. Many of the remaining fields were presumeably devoted to pasture. This would provide a valuable source of fresh provisions, but by this stage Newcastle was no longer self-sufficient in grain.
The Pandon Burn flows east through Barras Bridge and turns South to flow through the eastern extremity of the walled city. Burns flowing in Denes are characteristic of the region.
The expansion of the city northwards to Northumberland Street and Percy Street was curtailed by the events of the Civil War when the city was under siege. By the time of this map, a century later, the Northern Suburbs had been rebuilt.
There is a Bowling Green indicated on the map and elsewhere it has been stated that archery competitions took place in this area.
The area to the east of the city was home of the keelmen who ferried coal and other goods up and down the river and to and from ships waiting in deeper water. The river frontage was called the "Sangate Key Side" while further east, it was called "The Shore". These were the areas where they moored their keels. They were a closed community loyal to their own kind and their lives would have been regulated by the tides on the river
Quoting Bourne (1736) "At the Key itself is a very safe Station for Ships, where they lye free and secure from the greatest Dangers of Wind and Water, where they unload their their Wares and Commodities, their Wood, Deal; and by a Crane, their Wines, Flax, and all heavier Commodities."
The settlement in the County Palatinate of Durham was far smaller than Newcastle and governed in an entirely different fashion. The relations between Newcastle and Gateshead are lng-standing and complexr
The Map indicates extensive areas inside and outside the walls which are given over to cultivation. Many of the remaining fields were presumeably devoted to pasture.
The area immediately to the west of the walls up to the "Skinner Burn" is known as The Forth, and the part that slopes down to the river the Forth Banks. This was formerly an area devoted to Coal Mining but at this stage it was apparently used for public benefit. This was the site of "The Infirmary".